Monday, June 27, 2016

Lab Safety Trainings

What I learned in the lab safety training will help me during this internship. The things explained in these videos teach me lab safety, explain risk groups, and over-exposure to chemicals.

  1. There's a difference between exposure and infection. You can be exposed by inhaling an infectious agent but to get an infection it has to gain entry and create a colony in either an organ, tissues, or a cell.
  2. A laboratory safety information card is posted at the entry to all labs and has information about the materials used in the lab.
  3. Double gloving is recommended.
  4. It's important to decontaminate wok surfaces routinely
  5. Signs of chemical over-exposure include nausea, skin rashes, burning eyes, and headaches.

Friday, June 24, 2016

IF Intern Training

The trainings were very helpful in summarizing key components to keep in mind when working in a lab. I'd say that the Chemical Safety Training definitely put myself at ease if I'll be going into a lab that involves chemicals and what procedures are in place to minimize accidents.

5 Interesting Things that I learned from the trainings are:

- How useful fumes hoods are
- That PPE stands for Personal Protective Equipment
- That chemicals are not organized by alphabet
- How closed toe shoes and long pants are mandatory
- How flammable chemicals have their own separate container

Weekly Training Homework 6/19

Weekly Homework: 6/19

This week I viewed three lab safety videos about chemistry and biology in preparation for my Internship and the botany lab. These training videos taught me about the safety concerns of the BSL2 lab as well as give insight into the proper safety precautions in the chem laboratory.

1. I learned about the 4 risk groups created by the NIH

2. The functions of a face shield

3. Containment Strategy and differences between containment equipment in the laboratories

4. How aerosols are released and the function of the special seals that can contain the aerosol in a laboratory

5. Finally, I learned that the use of sharps is more restricted as one works in Biosafety 2 Laboratories. I also learned that safe sharps can be used in substitution for regular sharps and how the blade on a safe sharp can be easily covered.
The videos helped me expand my knowledge about lab safety. It taught what type of reactions can occur when exposures to certain chemicals. It also taught me how to be safe in certain bio safety levels.
1. One interesting thing I learned is that when working with animals researchers where full face shields and surgical mask to avoid contamination.
2. I learned that double gloving is often recommend because sometimes containments can get through the gloves.
3. When certain chemicals spill different reactions occur some chemicals can be cleaned up by oneself, but others need special ways of cleanups like aerosols.
4. When aerosols spill, one must hold their breath and leave the room and get call the proper clean up people.
5. There are two different bio safety levels. There is bio safety level one, safety glasses and glasses and gloves. While in level two face shields, surgical gloves, and double gloving are required.

Friday, June 17, 2016

Summary of Chapter 3: The Education of O.C. Marsh

Othniel Charles Marsh was born a farm boy into a modest family located in Lockport, a city north of Buffalo, New York. During his childhood, Marsh's father Caleb could not support his family and was financially unstable. Mary, Marsh's mother, passed away when he was only three years old. He and his older sister joined a step family of six children while their father remarried. Marsh began college at the very late age of 24, his delay being caused by Caleb forcing him to work to feed all the mouths in their extended family. This was an unfortunate time for Othniel as his father was very unforgiving and would punish him for his mistakes. During these events excavations were being conducted to widen the Erie Canal. The heaped-up rock from the excavations contained minerals and other valuable fossils. Marsh was influenced by his neighbor Ezekiel Jewett, who taught him what the rocks might reveal. Due to dowry given to Mary Peabody, Marsh was able to receive over $1,000 passed down to him. He then went on to attend Phillips Academy located in Andover, Massachusetts. Marsh did not focus fully on his studies until his sister died in her twenties. The grief caused Marsh to then focus on his studies fully. He excelled in his classes and was able to achieve the rank of valedictorian as well as a captain of the football team.
One of Marsh's and the worlds the most influential figures during the nineteenth century was Othniel's uncle George. He was born into a poor family of eight children and supported his mother after his father died when he was sixteen. George eventually was able to erase his family's debt and went on to become a very wealthy trader. Historians are very flattering in the subject of George's lifetime. Both preachers and writers praised Peabody for his generosity. Others would comment upon his love life, referring to failed marriages and a supposed mistress who he kept in Brighton. He kept a good relationship with Marsh and his sister Mary.

Summary of Peabody Celebrates 150 Years in Style

 The Peabody Museum is currently celebrating its 150th anniversary year with the exhibit "Treasures of the Peabody: 150 Years of Exploration and Discovery." More than 150 people attended the event, which began at around 5:30 P.M. They were treated to jazz and a very well prepared section of food. David Skelly, the director of the Peabody, opened the events with an opening remark. He remarked that the exhibit was created to tell the history of the Peabody Museum.
Within the exhibit contains a extended timeline of the Museums history from its founding in 1701 to the present day. The exhibit also contains a very small portion of the Museum's collection. Though, only 0.04 percent of the collection itself can be shown during one period of time. Due to the advanced history of the Museum, Thomas Near claimed that it would be complicated to encapsulate the records. Near claims that the curators of the Peabody were successful in forming an informative exhibit that presents the artifacts in a dignified manner. Geology professor Bhart-Anjan Bhuller believed that the Peabody's vertebrate paleontologists were modern-world successors of O.C. Marsh. Bhuller believes in both technological and physical display of the museum's artifacts. With 3-D printing, Bhuller claims that genetic research could be displayed at the large-scale. David Skelly views the 150th celebration exhibit as an image to look into the future of the Peabody.

Free Response Questions

1. O.C. Marsh was enthusiastic Darwinian who had an interest in collecting fossils from the excavated rock from the Erie Canal. His neighbor Jewett had a profound influence on his interest in collecting different Native American material. His fossils and artifacts eventually led to the first collections being created inside of the Peabody.

2. The article and chapter 3 of the House of Lost Worlds both have very different styles of writing. While both writings revolve around the history of the Museum, Richard Conniff retells the history of O.C. Marsh and George Peabody with in depth information on their education and family. Cameron Hill's article describes the importance of the 150th anniversary of the Peabody.

3. Darwinian is defined as relating to the ideas or theories of naturalist and geologist Charles Darwin. In chapter 3 of House of Lost Worlds, we learn that O.C. Marsh was an "enthusiastic" Darwinian who followed his theories. By the use of his discoveries, Marsh attempted to confirm the truth of these theories.

IF Homework 6/12


The founder of the Peabody Museum, O.C. Marsh had a hard childhood. His father was fairly undependable and his mom died when March was 3. When his father remarried, Marsh had to move to north of Boston a few years later. When the generation of children expanded from him and his sister to the pair plus 4 more (6 child, fathered by Marsh’s dad), the eldest son Marsh was forced to work in the fields to support the family. However, instead of working to support the family, O.C. Marsh found himself escaping the farm, exploring minerals, fossil corals, trilobites, etc up close and receiving an education of rocks and landscapes from a neighbor, Colonel Ezekiel Jewett, a mineralogist and paleontologist. Thanks to his share of money from his uncle George Peabody and unfortunate death of his sister in her early twenties, O.C. Marsh took his studies, graduating Valedictorian of his class at Andover eventually became a huge part in finding the Peabody Museum.  


The article recalls the Peabody’s recent event to commemorate the museum’s 150 year existence and opening. Although originally a challenge, the curators found a way to create an informative and visually appealing exhibit to complement the event taking place. Although not conspicuous ever since the Peabody first opened its doors, the Museum has been known to own a 13-million piece collection, only which 0.04 percent of all specimens in the collections are actually out on display in the museum. With such as enormous collection, the Museum has been credited with gaining recognition as a world leader from the 1960s to today and has taken part in housing specimens that have helped solve of humanity’s greatest problems such as creating the theory of evolution. In this modern age, researchers use advanced scanning on specimens from the collections to create 3D models, displays, etc. The Museum hopes to open it’s doors for many more years to come, continuing to support current research and giving visitor’s authentic exhibits to visit. 

O.C. Marsh is an important part of the Peabody Museum History because it was his interest and enthusiasm for collecting minerals and rocks, fostered by his neighbor Jewett, that eventually gave him grounds to establishing the Peabody Museum. With the creation of the museum, Marsh is able to house his collections and make the dream he had a reality as well as later contributing greatly to the sciences with the specimens found in the collections.

The writing style of Coniff retelling Peabody History/Marsh’s story seems like a vintage photograph that you can jump in to. The details found in the book make you feel like you are next to Marsh and Peabody, growing up with them as they face their trials and tribulations and see how their greatness truly stemmed from small beginnings. The article’s writing style focuses more on what the museum has become today, reputation wise as in what specimens that they have in their collections, how the museum has contributed to the field of science, etc. 

Darwinian means to be a person who supports Darwinism, "the theory of the evolution of species by natural selection advanced by Charles Darwin.” This adds on to O.C. Marsh’s history because we know that he believed in the theory of evolution of natural selection. This can mean that Marsh’s age old love for collecting will become crucial evidence for supporting the theory and help researchers later on as they can find those specimens in the collections.
Summary of Chapter 3:
O.C Marsh was from a farm in Lockport, New York State. His father's name was Caleb Marsh, he was undependable in every way from financially to taking care of the family.  and his mother Mary Peabody Marsh died when he was three. He and his sister move to live with relatives north of Boston. They moved back in with their father after he remarried and soon the family had six more children. His father pushed to work in the fields to help feed the family. He would go to whenever he had a chance to fish, hunt, and geologize. One of his neighbors Colonel Ezekiel Jewett, who was a mineralogist and paleontologist, he gave Marsh his first lessons in rocks and landscapes. Jewett also collected Native American ethnological material which would later interest Marsh. Marsh was guided by his aunt Judith Peabody Russell encouraged him to get educated,thus he enrolled in the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts.He studied very little is first year until his sister died unexpectedly. He then decided that he would take his studies seriously.He became the valedictorian of his class at Andover. During the summer, he would go on mineralogy expeditions to Nova Scotia. His Uncle George Peabody was his biggest supporter.
George Peabody was one of the most admired figures of the mid-nineteenth century on both sides of the Atlantic. He was born in 1795, and he was the third of eight children. He grew up in Denvers, Massachusetts. He did not receive a lot of proper schooling and he instead went to work in the village. His father died when he was sixteen and he began to support his family. In his early twenties he began to make a massive fortune in retail and then trading copper, silk, tea, and other commodities internationally, and later as a merchant banker in London. In the last decades of his life he gave his fortune away. In this process, he became the father of modern philanthropy and the model for donors from Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller to Warren Buffett and Bill Gates. He had a small group of admirers but had no luck in his personal love life. He was said to be,"one of the dullest men in the world: he had positively no gift except of making money." He worked hard and lived well. He knew it was too late for his education, he instead paid to educate his family members. Marsh thanked him for supporting him in Andover and hopeful in collage. Most of the Peabodys went to Harvard but Marsh was set on Yale. In 1850, he created a plan to establish an educational institution in every community where he had lived or worked. They were so welled planned that most are still working today. His most conversational donation was in 1867, he donated money to the confederate states to restore schools. He was seen as a Confederate sympathizer. Overall, he gave away about $8 million or $9 million dollars. Though his support for science was small and mostly given to O.C Marsh.

Summary of article:
The Peabody Museum in honor of its 150 years opened a new exhibit:"Treasures of the Peabody:150 years of Exploration and Discovery."More than 150 people attended the event. David Skelley said that the exhibit was made to tell the story of the Peabody and its place in Yale History. The items on display were chosen because they were thought to be the most interesting and some of the objects helped solve some of the biggest issues in science. For example the theory of where biodiversity came from and how it is kept.
The exhibit  is a timeline of the museum history and even has the first microscope bought by Yale seven decades before a science professor arrived at Yale.Only 0.04 percent of what the Peabody has is actually on display and this exhibit shows items from each of the ten departments.It is very difficult to place all 150 years of the museum in one exhibit but it was managed. The curators were able to unify items from each department to show the history of the Peabody.
Today, people continue to dig for fossils, but with the use of 3d processing with a CT scan researchers are pulling data that no one has ever gotten from the fossils.
Skelley stated that he not only looked at the celebration of 150 years of the Peabody but he also is looking forward to seeing what the Peabody will do for science education in the next 150 years.

The history of O.C Marsh is an important part of Peabody Museum History.Why?
 O.C Marsh's history is important to the Peabody's  history because he as young boy, he would sneak again from his chores to geologize and collect rocks. His interest in Native American ethnological material was spiked from a childhood neighbor. Through high school his Uncle George Peabody would support him and his education. George Peabody often made donations to education and he rarely donated to science and when he did it was usually for his nephew. O.C Marsh would go on mineralogy expedition. His interest in geology, minerals, and science helped him become a paleontologist. All of his discoveries and findings were what created the Peabody with the help of his Uncle.

The article and Conniff's book have different styles of writing. Compared to Hill's narration of Peabody's 150th anniversary, how does Richard Conniff's style of writing effect the retelling of Peabody History/ Marsh's story?
Hill's narration is written in a way that is easier for just about everyone to read and it more of the retelling of the 150th anniversary event and the exhibit. While Conniff's writing makes the retelling of the history of O.C Marsh and the Peabody made it more enjoyable to read while being very informative and interesting.

What does Darwinian mean and how does this add to the history of O.C Marsh that you just read?
Darwinian means relating to  Charles Darwin or to his ideas and theories. O.C Marsh agreed with his theories and uses his findings to prove Darwin's theories. Marsh was an enthusiastic Darwinian.

Summary of Chapter 3

O.C. Marsh was the son of Caleb and Mary Peabody Marsh. He grew up as a farm boy in Lockport, New York. After he turned 24, he received $1,200 from his uncle, George Peabody, and was pushed to enroll in the Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts. After Marsh's sister Mary died, Marsh decided he would be serious about the course of his life. Peabody himself never got the chance to get an education. Instead, he spent his life helping not only his family, but whole communities get educations.
George Peabody worked hard his whole life and lived modestly. Eventually, he earned a fortune estimated at $20 million. He donated the majority of his fortune in his later years. Peabody had little support for science and it seems like it was almost entirely O.C. Marsh's idea. Overall he donated about $9 million to science.

Summary of the article

The Peabody recently hosted an event that showcased a new exhibit: "Treasures of the Peabody: 150 Years of Exploration and Discovery" This exhibit contained objects from 150 years of the Peabody's existence. The objects in the exhibit are not only supposed to show off some of the items that the public hasn't seen of the Peabody's 13 million piece collections but show how the museum has contributed to the science world over the years. Items were chosen from each of the 10 collections.
Within the collections, there are artifacts and items that show evidence of evolution, biodiversity and answer other scientific questions. Even after 150 years, scientists at the Peabody still conduct research. For example, the Peabody's invertebrate paleontologists still dig up fossils but now they also go into the lab and do an advanced 3-D processing of CT-scanned data to pull things from fossils that people weren't able to before. Some believe the new exhibit isn't just to celebrate the museum's past but to show how the Peabody can contribute to the next 150 years of scientific education.

The history of O.C. Marsh is important to Peabody Museum history. Why?

The history of O.C. Marsh is important to the Peabody's history because Marsh's studies are what started the Peabody's collections. How he got to be the man he was helps us to understand why he did what he did.

The article and Conniff's book have different styles of writing. Compared to Hill's narration of Peabody's 150th anniversary, how does Richard Conniff's style of writing effect the retelling of Peabody History/Marsh's story? 

Richard Coniff's writing style effects the telling of the Peabody's history and Marsh's story. His writing is more in depth and detailed. It also tells more about how everything came to be instead of speaking more about the finished product.

What does Darwinian mean and how does this add to the history of O.C. Marsh that you just read?

Darwinian means someone who believes in Darwin's theory of evolution. This is important to the history of O.C. Marsh because Marsh was a Darwinian himself. As a Darwinian, it's likely that's what drove him to go out and find fossils and other specimen.

Wednesday, June 8, 2016

Departure - Prediction of 1st Week of Internship

On my first week of internship, I see myself as nervous walking into the workspace for the first time, but also ambitious as the same time. I'm working with Dr. Sweeney in the Peabody's Botany collection with Nick so this relieves some of the little anxiety. As I heard from last week, the specific job that Nick and I will be doing primarily is to categorize and enter a numerous amount of specimens into an online database for researchers across the nation to virtual borrow for their own research. I think that we're doing a tremendous help for those who want to readily borrow specimens virtually at a moment's notice so researchers can get to their studies/thesis/etc. faster without having to deal with shipping and handling.

In the workspace, I hope to be able to talk to everybody there since we'll be working together for the majority of the summer. I plan to ask lots of questions in order to open up conversations with lots of people and also to get filled in on information that I don't have the time to learn due to still being a high school student. I'm also looking forward to making sure I can neatly organize and keep a lab notebook as it will be future reference for those who wish to read it so.

Thursday, June 2, 2016

Expectations and Goals

Aaliyah Shabazz

One of my goals for the internship is to do well and enjoy what I'm doing. I also hope to learn more about the museum collections. Science really interests me so it's really exciting to get to work in a lab. Another goal of mine is to improve on my time management skills. Finally, my personal goals is to spend more time with my friends over the summer.

I can accomplish my goal of doing well by listening to directions and asking questions if I don’t understand how to do something. By doing my work, I can accomplish my goal of learning more about the museum collections. I think working on this internship will help me with my time management skills because not only do I have to work at a good pace to get my work done but I also have to prioritize my homework when I’m a home. I can spend more time with friends my planning activities with them or just finding time to hang out.

Wednesday, June 1, 2016

Expectations and Goals for Internship

Hello, my name is Nicholas Simons and I am excited to be participating in the botany collection internship at the Yale Peabody Museum. This is a major achievement for me as I will be assisting to support college level botany collection and research. Before I begin my first day working at the lab, I have a list of goals that I have created that I believe will help me achieve success in my internship. A goal that I set out to accomplish during my internship is to respect and handle all specimens and lab equipment with care. This will convey my maturity and conscientiousness to my advisors. Another goal I have is to treat my partners and superiors with respect. This goal will ensure that we can work together as a team which is the key to a successful work environment. Personal goals that I have are to keep a positive attitude as well as enjoy and learn as much as I can from the internship work that I will be doing. A positive attitude is important as it is key to achieving all my goals and ensuring that I will do my best work possible thus effecting a successful internship.