Friday, July 29, 2016

Revised Introduction and Procedures

Revised Introduction:

A research collection, known also as a collection library, provides a depiction of the past that can assist scientists and researchers by making discoveries in a particular field accessible for academic study. Further, the gathering of information on specimens and artifacts can be used by individuals in a field for comparison purposes as well as to provide a record of the names and classification of the items that comprise the collection.

During the summer of 2016, our team interned at a Botany lab led by Dr. Patrick Sweeney located within the Yale University Environmental Science Center. The specimens of the Yale Herbarium are from all over the world and include ferns, bryophyes, and grasses. Under the supervision of Dr. Sweeney, we were tasked with assisting the laboratory in their effort to catalog the Science Center's extensive collection of plant specimens with the digitization of these specimens funded by the National Science Foundation. In service as catalogers we were tasked with preserving specimens by mounting them on bristol board, taking digital photographs, providing stage one processing by including the dates the specimens were found as well as the municipalities of where each of the specimens were collected from, and filing the plant specimens into their specified cabinets.

Mounting Specimens Procedure:

#1: Don a lab coat, latex gloves, and safety goggles to protect the body from any harmful antigen residue on specimens

#2: Clean surrounding work area. If needed, place paper towels down to prevent any disarray

#3: Gather the correct materials to mount a plant specimen. One will need a small paint brush, a bottle of archival grade glue, and an ample supply of paper straps

#4: Take a piece of thin cardboard and place it onto the table. Then place one piece of bristol board paper and put it on top of the cardboard

#5: Delicately grasp the newspaper holding the plant specimen and place it carefully onto the table

#6: Open the newspaper it reveal the plant specimen

#7: Take the paper label and glue it onto the bottom right side of the bristol board.

#8: Fold a fragment pack and glue it onto paper to house loose pieces from specimen.

#9: Delicately place the specimen onto the paper. Make sure that at least one leaf is facing upside down.

#10: Take a paper strap and smear the bottom with archival glue.

#11: Use a pair of tweezers to delicately place the straps over the specimen to keep it in place. Make sure the plant is firmly flat on the paper.

#12: When finished take the mounted plant and the cardboard and place it on the shelf.

#13: Take a piece of wax paper and carefully lay it on top of the plant specimen.

#14: Place washers onto the specimen to prevent any bends or folds of the paper.

#15: Repeat steps 4 through 16 when mounting another plant specimen.

The earth's climate has changed greatly over the course of millions of years. The Geology lab studies how small microfossils called foraminifera (forams) tell what the climate was like millions of years of ago. The lab studies how forams and their shells can tell us about the how the climate and about the acidity levels of the ocean thousands and millions of years ago. By studying the shells and how much calcium carbonate are in the shells it tells researchers exactly how acidic the ocean was. It is important that researchers know how acidic the ocean was and how it affected sea life, like shellfish, and corals. If researchers know that information then they can predict what will happen to sea life if the pH levels in the ocean keep dropping. It is important that we know about the climate then and now because that way researchers can predict how climate changes like global warming, rises in CO2, and drops in pH levels will affect all of us and sea life in the long run.

Washing samples:
  1. Get a 63 micrometers sieve and place it in the sink.
  2. Pour the wet sample that is in the beaker in the sieve that is in the sink.
  3. If part of the sample remains in the beaker use the nozzle with a gentle spray of deionized water , that is strong enough to remove the sample but not too strong or the sample will go everywhere.
  4. To test the strength of the nozzle, turn it on AWAY from the sieve and test on your hand, it feels too strong then turn it down until it feels really gentle.
  5. Using the nozzle wash the sample in the sieve for thirty minutes.
  6. While washing move the nozzle slowly in an up and down motion or in a side to side motion. This will break up some of large clusters of clay and/or forams
  7. To test if the sample is clean after thirty minutes place the beaker under the sieve and let the water fill the beaker.
  8. If the water is cloudy add another fifteen minutes, and if it is still cloudy after that then it may need a second wash.
  9. To remove the sample from the sieve, place a circle piece of filter paper in a funnel and put it in the same beaker you used in the beginning.
  10. Using a spray bottle with Deionized water to gently remove the sample from the sieve into the filter paper.
  11. After that is done, place the sample in the dry oven over night
  12. Clean sink, station, and place sieve in sieve washer.

Do you think we've come a long way or we've still got ways to go when it comes to woman's advancements and giving people proper credit when it comes to working and fair pay? 
I think we still have a ways to go to when it comes to fair pay and giving women proper credits. There are cases when equal pay and credit is given but there are still a lot of instances were women do not receive equal pay or credit. In the case of Katherine Bush she received proper credit and pay most of the time but she was unable to join expeditions because she was a woman. However she was able to publish work. 

Botany Collections Procedures - IF

Intro Revision

In today’s world, there are researchers across the nation and the world with various research goals, such as the DNA of a plant, how does it’s structure correlate with it’s geographic location, etc. Unfortunately with everyone being in vastly different parts of the world, it is hard to collaborate with others and share data such as certain plant specimens in an efficient manner since it takes times to send a request to a collection for a certain specimen, the order being approved, and it being sent. Working in the Peabody Museum’s Botany Collection under the supervision of Dr. Patrick Sweeney, I’m tasked in contributing to the lab’s overall goal of digitizing current and future additions to the Botany Collection online. Some tasks that I’ve been doing includes mounting plant specimens onto paper, inputting data to entries in a database online, and cataloguing the plants already in the collection. Interns also collaborate with other East Coast Herbariums, such as the Pringle Herbarium at the University of Vermont, in an effort to making plant specimens between Herbarium Collections accessible in a more efficient and digital manner rather than the complex manner of doing it physically. 

Mounting Specimens
  1. Wear a lab coat, latex gloves, and protective eyewear to prevent any reactions if you come in contact with an undesirable specimens (mandatory for minors)
  2. Prepare your work area! Make sure you grab two paper towels, a jar of water, a paintbrush, multiples strips of bands with different sizes, tweezers, and scissors
  3. Get a long piece of cardboard, preferably greater length than width, and a piece of white paper, paper thicker and less flimsy than construction paper and also about the same size as the cardboard piece, and place the white paper on top of the cardboard
  4. Carefully grab a newspaper with a specimen in it and delicately put it next to the cardboard and white paper stack and open the newspaper
  5. Take the specimen label and cover the back of the label with glue applied using the paintbrush and press this label, glue side down, onto the bottom right hand corner of the white paper
  6. Carefully open the newspaper to examine the specimen and maybe any small bits of pieces that are no longer connected to the main specimen, ie leaves that may have fallen off, fruits pressed and dried, etc
  7. If you find these small bits and pieces, consider putting them into a fragment pack appropriate to the pieces’ size, small or big fragment pack. If not, skip this step. If you find something, then put the fragments into the pack and glue the back of the pack onto the bottom left hand corner of the white paper
  8. The fun part gets to actually mounting the specimen. Carefully pick up the specimen and place it on the white piece of paper
  9. Adjust it so that it is not blocking either the label of fragment packets (if applicable)
  10. Envision where you may be placing bands to pinpoint and constraint the specimens’ axis of movement
  11. Once you’ve done this, cut bands of appropriate length and apply glue to the ends of the band using the paintbrush
  12. Carefully place the band over the desired location and press down on the sides to stick the band onto the paper
  13. Repeat steps 10-12 until you’ve mounted the specimen onto the paper so that the specimen has little to no freedom to move. Remember: too many bands is better than too little
  14. When you’re done mounting, transport the cardboard and specimen on the white paper stack onto another location
  15. Cover the mounted specimen with wax paper and then use some sort of paper weight to keep the wax paper down
  16. Cover this with another piece of cardboard or hard surface that can cover the current stack
  17. Repeat steps 3-16 for the next few specimens waiting to be mounted

Cataloguing Specimens
1. Wear protective gear! Wear a lab coat, latex gloves, and protective eyewear. (Mandatory if you’re a minor)
2. Go into the main collections room
3.Identify the plant family you’ll be cataloguing
4.Once you know the plant family, look for that name in the plant directory. Find the name and you’ll see a number next to it. This number corresponds the cabinet the family can be found
5. If you need to, use the handles on the ends of the cabinet to make room for you to access the cabinet
6. Open the cabinet that has the desired plant family and make sure you find a conspicuous flap with the plant family name on it
7. The folders under the flap in individual shelves belong to the plant family
8. Open surrounding cabinets in order to know whether or not if the plant family extends to other cabinets or not
9. Once you have an idea of how many drawers have the plant family that you want, get a counter
10. Go to the plant family flap, and start with the first folder under it
11. Carefully peek at the bottom right hand corner of the folder and try to make a slow, thumb book flap motion (when you press your thumb on a book corner and quickly let go)
12. Every specimen with a label on the paper is a count so press the counter for every time you see a label. Remember, drawing do not count
13. Repeat steps 11-12 for every folder with the desired plant family until you reach another flap conveying that it’s another plant family. That’s where you stop

Tuesday, July 26, 2016

Procedure drafts and week 7/25 homework

Pre-washing your sample:

Make sure balance is level
Weigh the beaker to find the weight before you put the sample in
Start to fill in the chart with all important information (Ex: Date, beaker #, weight of beaker, sample number)
Put sediment in beaker but leave a thumb sized amount in the bag in case other researchers need to use it later
Use bag sealer to reseal the bag
Weigh sample in the beaker
Finish filling in the previously mentioned chart with the weight of the sample in the beaker

Foraminifera (forams) are dust-sized protists that live at the bottom of the ocean. These fossils are collected by drilling into the ocean floor. The Geology lab looks at fossilized forams and uses them to measure the climate, and ocean acidity of different geologic time periods. Ocean acidification is when the ocean takes in fossil fuels such as carbon dioxide which change the pH levels of the water. If the pH gets too low, the ocean is more acidic. When the ocean is more acidic, Foraminifera shells are thinner because they don’t have enough calcium carbonate to make strong shells. This can affect us because animals that make shells in the water are eaten by larger fish and we eat some of those fish. If animals can't make their shells they start to die off and that can seriously affect our food supply.

Do you think we've come a long way or we've still got ways to go when it comes to woman's advancements and giving people proper credit when it comes to working and fair pay?

I think we've come a long way in women's advancements. Back in the late 1800s to early 1900s women in science were usually unpaid volunteers and their colleagues and husbands would take credit for their work. Now women are paid to work in science fields and able to publish their work without it being stolen. We still have some ways to go though because some people still take credit for other's work. Also women aren't yet paid equally to men.

Friday, July 22, 2016

Nicholas Simons Introduction

Botany Laboratory Week 3 - Summary:

During the third week of my internship I've noticed how streamlined my partners and I have become. Though I continue to spend most of my work hours mounting plants, it has become much easier to position the specimens and care for them in the correct way. As more weeks continue to pass I find that my work has become much more streamlined and I now rely on Bob and Richard less and less with each passing day. I also find that Dr. Sweeney is beginning to introduce new assignments. One of these tasks required us to take a group of specimens that belong to the same family and divide them by species. We then take divide each of the species by region and file them within folders. Since I have already had prior experience filing specimens, it was very easy to adapt.

Introduction for Research Poster:

Research collections, also known as biological libraries, provide a depiction of the past that can assist scientists and researchers discover in different studies. These collections can sometimes be inaccessible and can only be observed by the lab through which they are confined to. This summer I interned at a Botany lab led by Dr. Patrick Sweeney located within the Peabody Museum. Under his supervision, my partners and I are tasked with assisting the laboratory in their effect to catalog the Peabody's extensive collection of plant specimens. The digitization of these specimens is funded by the National Science Foundation and our occupation as catalogers supports the museum by taking plants that were once inaccessible and put them out into the world.

Drafted introduction

Foraminifera (forams) are dust-sized protists that live at the bottom of the ocean. These fossils are collected by drilling into the ocean floor. The Geology lab looks at fossilized forams and uses them to see the climate, and ocean acidity of different geologic time periods. Ocean acidification is when the ocean takes in fossil fuels such as carbon dioxide which change the pH levels of the water. When the ocean is more acidic, Foraminifera shells are thinner because they don’t have enough calcium carbonate to make strong shells.

This week we worked on making a research question for our research poster. We also learned how to bottle samples and arrange them onto trays. We also started an experiment to see how ocean acidification affects shells. We broke up oyster shells and put them in salt water with varying levels of acidity to see the differences. We're going to be monitoring these shells over the next few weeks. This week we also learned about earthquakes and how to read seismographs.

IF - Homework 7/17/16

How was the week? What happened and what did you do at your internship this week?

This week went by fast but was mostly the same old same old with mounting new specimens and cataloguing more online. However with doing more of this, I am slowly progressing and becoming better at the two activities. With every specimen I mount, I become more aware of how many strips would I really need, how thin/thick should they be, etc. With cataloguing, I continue to decrease the amount of specimens that are unprocessed.

 Draft your poster Introduction.

Working under the supervision of Dr. Sweeney in the Botany section of the Peabody's Collections, I am tasked in contributing to the lab's overall goal of digitizing the Botany Collection online. Interns are tasked with mounting plant specimens onto a paper platform and later digitizing it onto a database. In collaboration with other universities along the east coast, a huge collection of botanical specimens are made viewable online by researchers across the nation and across the globe for future studies. 

Thursday, July 21, 2016

Weekly Homework:
           This week in the lab we started a new experiment on ocean acidification. We crushed oyster shells and put about one ounce in a salt-water vinegar solution, another in just a solution of saltwater, and the final ounce in a solution of seltzer water and vinegar. After about a month we will see how much the shells look like being in water with that level of acidity. This is to show how the ocean acidification affects shell-fishs' shells. We also continued washing samples and learned how to put the dry samples into bottles, so that others can study them. We also began to arrange the forams on slides, for me this was a bit of a time consuming. We put glue on the slides and using water we stuck them on there. I , of course, picked the smallest forams to arrange and it took me 45 minutes to arrange six of them on a slide. However, i enjoyed it. It was a good week overall.

The earth's climate has changed greatly over the course of millions of years. The Geology lab studies how small microfossils called foraminifera (forams) tell what the climate was like millions of years of ago. The lab studies how forams and their shells can tell us about the how the climate and the acidification was thousands and millions of years ago. By studying the shells and how much calcium carbonate are in the shells it tells them how Ocean acidification is caused by the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere which causes the Ph levels in the ocean to drop. The acidification of oceans makes the shells of shellfish weaker and thinner, and by studying the amount of calcium carbonate in the shells of forams it can tell researchers what the climate was like millions of years ago.


Friday, July 15, 2016

Weekly homework 7/15

This week my partners and I began carrying out the first step of processing plant specimens online. This first step requires one to list the date when the specimen was collected as well as its localization. This process proved to be complicated at times as some of the handwriting was, in some ways, very complicated to understand. We were given this task as a way to introduce us as to how one starts to log plant specimens online. In the future we will most likely be completing stage 2 and 3 processing on the specimens so that they can be put online for other universities to view.

Article Question #1:

Ocean Acidification is the decrease of pH in the oceans around the world. The rising acidity is caused by an uptake of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. Sea creatures such as sea butterflies are affected by ocean Acidification when their shells and fins become more thin and deformed. This causes sea butterflies to become vulnerable to predators. Salmon use sea butterflies as a food source, and scientists predict that a ten percent drop in sea butterfly numbers equals a twenty percent drop in a mature salmons body weight. This affects humans as we use salmon as a food source. More importantly, the negative affects of ocean Acidification can be transfered to humans when they consume seafood. Many people eat crab, lobster, and salmon often which poses high risks for the health of humans as well.

Article Question #2:

Researchers have found that Kelp is successful in combating Acidification through acting as a shield to protect vulnerable coats as well as fen off toxic algae which can harm native fish life. Such as unique and beneficial species would be studied at a botany lab as researchers would want to continue to study Kelp and the benefits it holds.

Article Question #3:

Researchers in the article have found that using Kelp as a barrier can protect vulnerable oceans from the harmful affects of Acidification. This can further help sea creatures such as the sea butterfly which are directly affected by the acidity of the water. The use of Kelp also can help the US save 82 million dollars year when it can fend off the growth of harmful algae and algal blooms by the use of its bacteria. This also assists sea life such as fish as algal blooms can directly harm them.

Weekly Homework 7/10/16

How does ocean acidification effect us?

Ocean acidification is caused by the rising level of carbon dioxide being admitted and soaked into the ocean water. Due to the more acidic water, sea animals like, sea butterflies, crabs, and shrimp have a harder time building their shells and become more vulnerable. Sea butterflies in particular are staples in the diets of marine animals such as salmon. Salmon and other fish are food for us and this could seriously affect the amount of food for countries like Japan.

Would we study kelp in the botany lab? Why or why not?

We would study kelp in the botany lab because kelp can be used to reduce the acidity in the oceans. It should also be studied because it can be used as a food source and is easy to maintain.

In what ways is growing kelp beneficial to the environment and economy?

Growing kelp can be beneficial to the environment because we can use it to reduce our fossil fuel usage by being converted into biofuel. They can also save the U.S. about $82 million per year by harboring bacteria that can fend off the growth of toxic algae which can kill fish.

This week we learned about geologic time clocks and made our own using a roll of toilet paper. This was to show the actual time differences in the history off earth. this activity was supposed to help us understand what time time difference between some of the forams can be. Seeing it all laid out showed me that humans really haven't been here long at all and dinosaurs went extinct much more recently than I thought. We also learned how to wash and pre wash samples and were actually able to wash some even though most of them needed a second wash. We have to do this so that the clay chunks can break up and we can be able to see individual forams when they're put under the microscope. Then we learned how to bottle the clear samples so they can be studied.

IF Homework - 7/15/16

Article Link:

How does ocean acidification affect us?

As the ocean becomes more acidic due to human interaction such as rising carbon dioxide levels, the environmental and habitats of sea animals such as clams, crabs, lobsters, etc worsen with the increasing amount of acidic water. This affect us because we are known to eat those sea animals so if something bad happens to them, then the effects will be passed on to us as well and the number of those animals for us to eat diminish as well.

Would we study kelp at the Botany lab? Why or why not?

I'd say that we'd study kelp at the Botany lab in order to further learn about the plants' capabilities to counteract ocean acidification. We already know that seaweed and kelp contains bacteria that fend off toxic algae, toxins that can kill fish and contaminate drinking water; so why not lean more about the plant to learn more about it's benefits? Kelp is a natural way of potentially solving these problems so it'd be worthwhile to study more about them.

In what ways is growing kelp beneficial to the environment and economy?

After reading the article, I learned various ways that kelp is beneficial to the environment and economy. Kelp have bacteria that can counteract/prevent harmful toxic algae which are detrimental to other fish and can even contaminate drinking water. It can also "generate sustainable energy and food while preserving scarce fresh water for humans" and has been known to absorb nitrogen found in various waterways besides the ocean such as lawns, farms, etc. Best of all, "kelp requires no feed, no fertilizer, no arid land and no fresh water." making kelp very easy to attain for the benefits aforementioned or research. 

Describe what you did this week during your internship (This first part is a given during any week! So write this on your blog posts every week). Do you know why you're doing these tasks? What is it for?

During my first two days of my internship (I was absent on Thursday to attend a trip to the NY Hall of Science), I began my first step of the greater picture of what I am doing in my internship as a whole. Richard, a member of the collections space, taught us the procedures of mounting specimens. Dr. Sweeny prepared a big stack of specimens ranging from plants found in Madagascar  to South America, in which the 3 of us would be able to mount by the end of the day.

As I said above, mounting the specimens is the first step to the overall picture of the internship. The overall picture is to aid Dr. Sweeny and his lab in digitizing a large majority of the Peabody’s Botany Collection to an online database so researchers around the world have access to different specimens to study off of. I can only predict that as the internship goes on, Dr. Sweeney or someone in the lab will teach us how to catalogue the specimens or upload them online to the database.
How does ocean acidification effect us?
It will kill coral reefs, make many sea creatures less resilient to pollution, and would disorganize fish patterns

Would we study kelp at the Botany lab? Why or why not?
Yes, i believe we should because of the amount of studies that prove that kelp can be so beneficial to us and to the ocean. It also absorbs nitrogen and can remove toxins created by algae and

In what ways is growing kelp beneficial to the environment and economy?
Growing kelp is a cheap, and efficient way of reducing ocean acidification and prevents the growth of harmful algae which causes people to spend large amounts of money to reduce the toxins caused by the algae. Kelp is said to be the new kale, therefore it can also be farmed and sold to be eaten. Kelp does not fresh water, no feed and no fertilizer, which also saves money that would have been used for the all those supplies.

This week in the lab we started washing samples. We reviewed how to wash and then we began the long process of washing. Some samples can take up to an hour or even require a second wash. Usually, second washes  are easier than the first but can sometimes turn into a third and fourth wash. We put the geological time scale on a roll of toilet paper, it was a lonnnnggg roll of toilet paper. It was a fun activity that put into perceptive of how little humans have actually been around for, and that the dinosaurs were around for a small of amount compared to other things. Other than we have been washing samples, and Georgie presented a really cool presentation about the geological time scale.

Friday, July 8, 2016

What we have done in the Geology lab so far is learn about what our mentor research and how things are set up in the lab. We learned a bit about foraminifera and what they are and where they are from. We looked at them from under the microscope because they are microfossils and we saw a few of the many types of foraminifera under the scope; we also identified a few of them. We also spoke with one of the most women to study foraminifera and she told us a bit more of the study of foraminifera. Finally, we learned how to prepare samples to be washed and how to wash them without losing important parts of the sample. At the end of day we pre-washed them and prepared them for being washed tomorrow.

What were the problems that were keeping the Peabody Museum from being built? Are these issues modern day or simply issues of the past? Explain why or why not.
One issue was that there were not enough funds to build the grand design of the Peabody. The people who were in charge of the design are created a grand design and they were not enough funds to create it. This issue is not just an issue of the past, it is an issue of today too. I believe our Hall of Dinosaurs has not been redone due to lack of funds. It isn't just our museum, any other museum or place that does not have the fund they need to build or make something it does not happen or does not happen completely.

Why isn't current research faster--What are some roadblocks that can come from starting a new research project or forming new labs?
Some roadblocks are money. If there is not enough money then the research can be started, finished, or has to be halted. Another roadblock is getting the permission needed to began research and after permission is granted than one must get the proper funding otherwise the research cannot start.

Chapter 4 and First Week Summary

During our first week at Dr. Sweeney's botany lab, I spent most of my time mounting plant specimens that are to be archived in the lab's extensive archive department. I've learned to have extreme patience in handling the different specimens. Some of the specimens I mounted were quite large in size, creating complications in fitting them on the paper. After my second day of mounting I have become more acquainted with the procedure. On my third day I begun to help file plant specimens that were sent to the Peabody Museum. It was interesting to learn how the specimens are filed into the cabinets.

Chapter 4 Question #1:

A major problem that occurred while constructing the Peabody Museum was that the available funds to build the Museum was not nearly enough to create the building that they envisioned. The trustees of the Peabody commissioned a grand design of the Peabody Museum that would "suit" best to their mission on understanding life on earth. The funds given to them only allowed them to build one wing of their design. These dilemmas are not issues of the past. Rather, they continue to cause problems today when insufficient funds causes different construction projects to be delayed.

Chapter 4 Question #2:

A roadblock that can occur when starting a research project is that there is a possibility that the project will exceed the funds that one has available. The Peabody trustees designed a beautiful Museum that would house their collections and would help in their mission in understanding all life on earth. Unfortunately, the lack of money only allowed for the construction of one wing of the Museum. Money is a very important aspect in a research project. Many different aspects contribute to a research project and each of those individual aspects cost money. When the money begins to add together, one can find that the costs may become too high.

Chapter 4 and first week summary

What were the problems that were keeping the Peabody Museum from being built? Are these issues modern day or simply issues of the past? Explain why or why not.

The problem that kept the Peabody museum from being built was there wasn't enough funds to build he entire museum. They only had enough to build one wing. This is a modern day issue because you need the money to pay the construction workers and pay for the materials to start construction.

Why isn't current research faster-- What are some roadblocks that can come from starting a new research project or forming new labs?

One roadblock that can come from starting a new research project is funding. If you don't have the money, you can't get the supplies to start the project. Another roadblock could be obtaining research subjects. For example, if you want to study a dinosaur bone, you have to find a lab that has that bone and request to borrow it. One more roadblock can be finding another lab to work in. If there's not another facility available, there's nowhere to work.

This week we got to meet our mentor for our lab. On the first day, we sat down with her and watched a documentary about the ocean. We also talked about forams and what they are and looked at some under a microscope. We also learned how to wash samples and met an expert of foraminifera.

Friday, July 1, 2016

Nicholas Simons Chapter 7 Evolution Homework

  1. Does the expedition in chapter 7 hold any significance in our time?

In chapter 7 of House of Lost Worlds, numerous discoveries are made that rectified oversights made over key distinctions between different species.  Considered to be one of the greatest finds in evolutionary history, Marsh oversaw a shipment of fossilized jaws to which he believed belonged to a newly uncovered reptile. Upon further inspection, Marsh realized that the jaws belonged to a bird with teeth, to which he designated as the Ichthyornis dispar. This discovery was crucial as it makes distinctions between reptiles and birds as well as prove the transitional forms between the two species. More importantly, T.H. Huxley, known as “Darwin’s Bulldog,” claimed the findings brought factual evidence that backs Darwin’s theory of evolution.

2.  How does it compare to the research that was done in the article?

The research article published on the Plant Science Bulletin shares similarities to Marsh’s expedition. Both the expedition and the research study were conducted to increase knowledge in a particular field. Marsh’s expedition that began in the 1870’s lead to new discoveries such as the Ichthyornis Dispar that distinguished transitional differences between reptiles and birds. The profound find created new openings for research that changed our understanding of evolution. In the article, the project on plant life was conducted for a similar reason. The program “opened” students eyes to a world of plants as well as increase their understanding of plant life.

Chapter 7

Does the expedition in chapter 7 hold any significance in our time?

The expedition in chapter 7 broke down the distinction between birds and reptiles. During this expedition, Marsh discovered evidence of the series of transitional forms between birds and reptiles. At the time, the public didn't want to see these findings because it proved that Darwin's theory of evolution was fact. Now, we embrace this fact and continue to study evolution.

How does it compare to the research that was done in the article?

Marsh's expedition compares to the research that was done in the article because both were meant to gain skills and increase knowledge in a certain subject. Marsh's expedition was meant to increase knowledge of fossils and evolution and also allowed the students he brought along to gain and practice paleontology skills. The research that was done in the article increased knowledge of local plants and allowed the students who took part to gain spatial skills in georeferencing and GPS use, as well as, botanical skills in field identification, inventorying, and data management.

IF Homework - Chapter 7

The expedition in Chapter 7 recalls Marsh's student expedition to further expand his collection. His students endured blistering temperatures, exhausting hours, etc to find various dinosaur fossils to the Peabody Museum. The expedition holds significance to the modern time because it further describes the trials, experiences, and tribulations that Marsh and his students went through to amass his collection. Marsh in the process picked up a rival, Cope, over their expedition finds in which they stopped at nothing to outdo each other. Both sides would rush to find new fossils, publish (although not well written in order to move on), etc that it's said that two later paleontologists would devote 30 years to analyze and interrupt all of the papers to make sense out of them. Through reading the chapter, you'll learn how deeply passionate Marsh was and with the help of his students, to further expand his collection for those to reference in later times. Thanks to the expeditions, evidence to further corroborate Darwin's theory of evolution through horse toes and the toothed bird Ichthyornis disbar, was found with Hesperornis which created the link between reptiles and birds.

Reading Marsh's experiences in his conquest to further his collection is very similar to those students at Rutgers University in the article. You find both parties out of the classroom to get a hands on experience discovering new species in their respective fields. Where the article differentiates is that the whole going out of the classroom idea is to get students engaged into learning more about plants instead of the classic textbook way while Marsh did so to expand his collection. Marsh's side found him in more of a rivalry that him and Cope became obsessed over. Overall, both sides seemed to expand their knowledge for both themselves and future students to learn.

Does the expedition in chapter 7 hold any significance in our time?
The expedition discovered the Ichthyornis dispar and a larger Hesperornis solidified the that were was once a link between reptiles and birds.
It also proved that Darwin's theory of evolution further. It showed the horse began as a small three toed or five toed horse and then evolved into the current horse with hooves. It became the basis for evolution and helped us discover relationships between several different species.

How does it compare to the research that was done in the article?
The research in the article was done to improve the knowledge of the local plants and to help how much we need plants. Also it was done to help people gain ,plants knowledge of plants and ability to identity the types of plants and their uses. The expedition served a similar purpose. The expedition helped further prove Darwin's theory of evolution. It also expanded the knowledge of several relationships between birds and reptiles and from other species.